H. W. S. Cleveland

An important force in nineteenth-century American landscape architecture, H. W. S. Cleveland (1814–1900) has long been overshadowed by Frederick Law Olmsted, with whom he worked briefly at Prospect Park. Cleveland’s “organic” design approach was first expressed in 1855 at Sleepy Hollow Cemetery in Concord, Massachusetts, where he and Robert Morris Copeland developed a landscape aesthetic based chiefly on the writings of Ralph Waldo Emerson.