places

The Gardens of Ellen Biddle Shipman and the Restoration of the Cummer Museum Gardens

Jacksonville, Florida

Italian Garden, estate of Arthur and Ninah Cummer, Jacksonville, FL.  Courtesy Cummer Museum of Art and Gardens.

Italian Garden, estate of Arthur and Ninah Cummer, Jacksonville, FL.
Courtesy Cummer Museum of Art and Gardens.

In 1999, just after finishing my term as chair of the American Horticultural Society and moving to Florida, Robin Karson gave me a copy of The Gardens of Ellen Biddle Shipman. I was surprised to find

Arthur Cummer, once a prominent resident of Jacksonville, on the client list. Fascinated by the idea that Shipman may have worked on the grounds of the Cummers’ home (which had become the Cummer Museum of Art & Gardens), I ordered a set of original plans from the Shipman archives at Cornell University. Comparing the dimensions of the museum’s garden against the plans, I was thrilled to discover that they matched perfectly. The next six months were spent researching the extensive plant palette described in the historic plans.

Fountain, Italian Garden, Cummer Museum of Art and Gardens. Photograph by Mick Hales.

Fountain, Italian Garden, Cummer Museum of Art and Gardens. Photograph by Mick Hales.

Newly discovered photos in the family archives also provided invaluable guidance in the project to restore the Italian Garden to its original condition. In addition to rebuilding brick walkways and crumbling walls, the Museum’s efforts focused on restoring the centerpiece of the garden, a large marble fountain purchased by the Cummers during a 1930 tour of Italy, the same trip that had inspired the creation of this garden. The new fountain was cast by Marble Studio Stagetti in Pietrasanta, Italy, using old photos, drawings, and molds of the original. In time, the historic garden’s beds were replanted using horticultural species that replicated as nearly as possible those in the original plans.

View to St. Johns River, Italian Garden, Cummer Museum of Art and Gardens. Photograph by Judith B. Tankard.

View to St. Johns River, Italian Garden, Cummer Museum of Art and Gardens. Photograph by Judith B. Tankard.

As the restoration of the Shipman garden progressed, our exciting discoveries gradually stimulated the rejuvenation of the entire museum grounds. Subsequent research revealed that in 1903, Ninah Cummer had commissioned the Chicago-based landscape architect Ossian Cole Simonds to lay out a landscape plan for their newly built home, decades before Shipman’s work there. Further developments occurred in 1910 with the creation of the Wisteria Garden (now known as the English Garden), designed by the prominent Philadelphia nurserymen Thomas Meehan & Sons. Charles Beveridge, the foremost authority on Frederick Law Olmsted, visited the Cummer and confirmed that the family had hired Olmsted Brothers during two separate years, 1922 and 1931, for improvements to yet another part of the grounds.

By then landscape restoration fever had taken hold, and the staff’s attention turned to the task of unifying the disparate garden areas into a cohesive museum campus. This work was carried out over several years with assistance from the distinguished Belgian landscape architect François Goffinet. As a result of these restorations, the landscape of the Cummer Museum of Art & Gardens again bears the imprint of some of the country’s finest landscape architects, leading to a listing on the National Register of Historic Places in You might say that the groundbreaking book published by LALH in 1996 served as the catalyst for the preservation of all these important early twentieth-century gardens.

—Carolyn Marsh Lindsay

Profiles:

Southern Authors and Their Home Places: The Eudora Welty Garden and Rowan Oak, Mississippi (2017)

The Gardens of Ellen Biddle Shipman and the Restoration of the Cummer Museum Gardens (2017)

Rescuing Val Verde, Montecito, California (2017)

Jensen’s Masterpiece on Lake St. Clair: Edsel & Eleanor Ford House, Grosse Pointe Shores, Michigan (2017)

The James Rose Center for Landscape Architectural Research and Design: Maintaining Change Ridgewood, New Jersey (2016)

The Reynolda House Museum: LALH Book Guides Expansion / Winston-Salem, North Carolina (2015)

The Wormsloe Institute: Exploring the Landscape in Layers / Savannah, Georgia (2014)

John Nolen’s Union Park Gardens: Where Neighborliness Abounds / Wilmington, Delaware (2014)

Landmark Recognition of Steele’s Camden Amphitheatre: It Began With a Book / Camden, Maine (2013)

Boston’s Charles River Esplanade (2013)

Olmsted and Vaux’s Riverside: Pitching In To Preserve A Historic Landscape / Riverside, Illinois (2013)

Dancing into the Future: Dumbarton Oaks Park (2012)

Indiana University’s Woodland Campus (2012)

A Buffalo Neighborhood Renews Its Olmsted Legacy (2012)

A Collaborative Masterwork on Lake St. Clair / Edsel and Eleanor Ford House (2011)

Planting Acorns for Lincoln / Lincoln Memorial Garden, Springfield, Illinois (2011)

Beauty Returns to Burnham Island / Graceland Cemetery, Chicago, Illinois (2010)

Caring for a Modernist Masterpiece / The Irwin Miller Garden, Columbus, Indiana (2010)

Use and Beauty at the Mission House / Stockbridge, Massachusetts (2010)

Can Pastoral Beauty Heal the Mind? / Northern State Hospital, Sedro-Woolley, Washington (2009)

Parsons Park Rebounds / St. Nicholas Park, New York City (2009)

Landscape Preservation on a Forest Scale / Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, Woodstock, Vermont (2009)

Water, Time, and Vision at Stan Hywet (2008)

Dumbarton Oaks Library Treads Lightly on the Landscape (2008)

Naumkeag Extolled (2008)

New Life for Farrand’s Last Garden / Garland Farm, Bar Harbor, Maine (2008)